Development of a combined XRF/XPS surface-analysis system for the surface-layer quantification of 28Si spheres

Yu-Hsin Wu, Jeng-Yu Chiu, Sheng-Jui Chen, Michael Kolbe, Rolf Fliegauf, Edyta Beyer, Frank Haertig


To achieve a new kilogram definition using the X-ray crystal density method, the Center for Measurement Standards, Industrial Technology Research Institute in Taiwan has established the combined XRF (X-ray fluorescence)/XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) surface analysis system for the quantitative surface-layer analysis of Si spheres. The surface layer of a Si sphere is composed primarily of an oxide layer, carbonaceous contamination and physisorbed/chemisorbed water. This newly combined instrument has been implemented to measure the XRF for the direct determination of the mass deposition of oxygen (ng/cm2) with a calibrated silicon drift detector and the XPS for the ratio between the elements (O, Si, C) and composition identification. These two complementary methods of X-ray metrology allow an accurate determination of the surface-layer mass of the Si sphere. In this paper, the construction of a combined XRF/XPS surface-analysis system is reported, including the surface characterisation method, the assembly of parts of the load-lock chamber and ultra-high-vacuum analysis chamber, the vacuum-system design, hardware integration and the intended research on surface-layer measurement. It is anticipated that the measured surface-layer mass will be combined with the core mass of the Si sphere.

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