Acta IMEKO <p>The online journal of IMEKO - the <a href="">International Measurement Confederation</a>.</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ul> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ul> (Prof. Francesco Lamonaca, Ph.D) (Dirk Röske) Wed, 30 Nov 2022 05:54:39 +0000 OJS 60 A training centre for intraocular pressure metrology The eye-tonometers are the important medical devices with measuring function which are necessary for the screenings of the intraocular hypertension (a serious risk factor for the glaucoma). However, it is not an easy task to ensure their correct metrological traceability. There is needed not only a wide range of various equipment but also the relevant know-how. Hence, a training centre for this quantity was established at the Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) within the framework of a smart specialisation concept for the intraocular pressure (IOP) metrology. The paper briefly outlines its history, scope, methodologies and future development plans Dominik Pražák, Vítězslav Suchý, Markéta Šafaříková-Pštroszová, Kateřina Drbálková, Václav Sedlák, Šejla Ališić, Anatolii Bescupscii, Vanco Kacarski Copyright (c) 2022 Dominik Pražák, Vítězslav Suchý, Markéta Šafaříková-Pštroszová, Kateřina Drbálková, Václav Sedlák, Šejla Ališić, Anatolii Bescupscii, Vanco Kacarski Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 How the COVID-19 changed the hands-on laboratory classes of electrical measurement <p>This article depicts how COVID-19 affected practical teaching at Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Department of Measurement. It introduces the subject of Electrical Measurement and its hands-on laboratory classes. The course applies to more than 100 undergraduate students per semester. Since COVID-19 mainly affected the teaching of the hands-on laboratory courses, the article narrates how the COVID-19 lockdown has changed classes. An experience with the rapid transformation of lectures during the lockdown focusing on the hands-on laboratory classes is discussed, and the improvements that have been done to preserve its objectives, but also to adapt them to another possible lockdown, and the need to switch to the distance teaching, is revealed. The changes have been inspired by the results of a survey carried out among more than 250 students. The outline of the laboratory tasks transformation with an emphasis on the possibility of switching the real face-to-face measurement to the distance teaching remote lectures is described. The change includes reducing the number of laboratory tasks taught while preserving most of the objectives. All 11 new laboratory tasks are described in detail, and it is discussed how the possible change from hands-on to remote classes will affect every task.</p> Jakub Svatos, Jan Holub Copyright (c) 2022 Jakub Svatos, Jan Holub Mon, 19 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Biomechanics in crutch assisted walking <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Crutch-assisted walking is very common among patients with a temporary or permanent impairment affecting lower limb biomechanics. Correct crutches’ handling is the way to avoid undesired side effects in lower limbs recovery or, in chronic users, upper limbs joints diseases. Active exoskeletons for spinal cord injured patients are commonly crutch assisted. In such cases, in which upper limbs must be preserved, specific training in crutch use is mandatory. A walking test setup was prepared to monitor healthy volunteers during crunch use as a first step. Measurements were performed by using both a motion capture system and instrumented crutches measuring load distribution. In this paper, we present preliminary tests results based on different subjects - having a variety of anthropometrical characteristics - during walking with parallel or alternate crutches, the so-called three and two-points strategies. Tests results present inter and intra subject variabilities and, as a first goal, influencing factors affecting crutch loads have been identified. In the future we aim to address crutch use errors that could lead to delayed recovery or upper limbs suffering in patients, giving valuable information to physicians and therapists to improve user’s training.</span></p> Francesco Crenna, Matteo Lancini, Marco Ghidelli, Giovanni B. Rossi, Marta Berardengo Copyright (c) 2022 Francesco Crenna, Matteo Lancini, Marco Ghidelli, Giovanni B. Rossi, Marta Berardengo Mon, 19 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Contrasting roles of measurement knowledge systems in confounding or creating sustainable change Sustainable change initiatives are often short-circuited by failures in modelling. Unexamined assumptions about measurement and numbers push modelling into the background as a presupposition rarely articulated as an explicit operation. Even when models of system dynamics are planned components of a sustainable change effort, the key role of measurement is typically overlooked. The crux of the matter concerns the distinction between numeric counts and measured quantities. Mistaking the former for the latter confuses levels of complexity and fundamentally compromises communications. Reconceiving measurement as modelling multilevel distributed decision processes offers new alternatives aligned with historically successful efforts in creating sustainable change. Five conditions for successful sustainable change are contrasted from the perspectives of single-level vs multilevel modelling: vision, plans, skills, resources, and incentives. Omitting any one of these from efforts at creating change result, respectively, in confusion, treadmills, anxiety, frustration, and resistance. The shortcomings of typically implemented single-level approaches to measurement result in the widespread experience of these negative consequences. Results show that new potentials for creating sustainable change can be expected to follow from implementations of multilevel distributed decision processes that effectively counteract organizational amnesia by embedding new learning in an externally materialized knowledge infrastructure incorporating a shared cultural memory. William P. Fisher, Jr. Copyright (c) 2022 William P. Fisher, Jr. Fri, 23 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A MATHMET Quality Management System for data, software, and guidelines <p class="Abstract">The European Metrology Network for Mathematics and Statistics (MATHMET) is creating a Quality Management System (QMS) to ensure that research outputs in the forms of data, software and guidelines are fit-for-purpose, achieve a sufficient level of quality, and are consistent with the aims of National Measurement Institutes to provide quality-assured and trusted outputs. The essential components of the QMS for all three forms of research output are discussed. On-line, interactive risk assessment tools that guide a user through the process of assigning an integrity level for the research outputs of data and software, are described. Examples of case studies that have been used to demonstrate the QMS are indicated.</p> Keith Lines, Jean-Laurent Hippolyte, Indhu George, Peter Harris Copyright (c) 2022 Keith Lines, Jean-Laurent Hippolyte, Indhu George, Peter Harris Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Spatiotemporal analysis of human gait, based on feet trajectories estimated by means of depth sensors <p>This paper addresses a methodology for the analysis of human gait, based on the data acquired by means of depth sensors. This methodology is dedicated to healthcare-related applications and involves the identification of the phases of the gait cycle by thresholding estimates of velocities of the examined person’s feet. In order to assess its performance, a series of experiments was carried out using a reference gait-analysis system based on a pressure-distribution-measurement platform. An original method for quantifying gait asymmetry, based on a quasi-correlation between the feet trajectories, was also proposed and tested experimentally. The results of the reported experiments seem to promise a high applicability potential of the considered methodology.</p> Jakub Wagner, Roman Z. Morawski Copyright (c) 2022 Jakub Wagner, Roman Z. Morawski Mon, 19 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Training program for the metric specification of imaging sensors Measurement systems in industrial practice are becoming increasingly complex and the system-technical integration levels are increasing. Nevertheless, the functionalities can in principle always be traced back to proven basic functions and basic technologies, which should, however, be understood and developed. For this very reason, the teaching of elementary basics in engineering education is unavoidable. The present paper presents a concept to implement a contemporary training program within the practical engineering education on university level in the special subject area of optical coordinate measuring technology. The students learn to deal with the subject area in a fundamentally oriented way and to understand the system-technical integration in detail from the basic idea to the actual solution, which represents the common practice in the industrial environment. The training program is designed in such a way that the basics have to be worked out at the beginning, gaps in knowledge are closed by the aspect of group work and the targeted intervention of a supervisor. After the technology has been fully developed theoretically, the system is put into operation and applied with regard to a characterizing measurement. The measurement data are then evaluated using standardized procedures. A special part of the training program, which is to promote the own creativity and the comprehensible understanding, represents the evaluation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the system by a self-developed algorithmic program section in the script-oriented development environment MALTAB, whereby students can supportively fall back on predefined functions for the evaluation, whose implementation however still must be accomplished. Raik Illmann, Maik Rosenberger, Gunther Notni Copyright (c) 2022 Raik Illmann, Maik Rosenberger, Gunther Notni Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A morphological and chemical classification of bronze corrosion features from an Iron Age hoard (Tintignac, France): the effect of metallurgical factors <span lang="EN-GB">A categorization of corrosion morphologies of archaeological Sn bronzes was carried out on archaeological Iron Age objects. The objects come from a Celtic deposit located in central France (Tintignac, Corrèze) and are dated between 2nd and 3rd cent BC. Being samples of corroded metals taken from a single find spot, parameters connected to the features of the alloy and known to influence the corrosion morphologies were thoroughly considered. Global processes were highlighted, and corrosion mechanisms were characterized with a multi-analytical protocol (SEM-EDS, micro-Raman spectroscopy, image analyses) according to the detected morphology. Elaboration of the results was carried out with a multicomponent approach. Results show the presence of 5 different morphologies correlated to the alloys characteristics of the objects. Alloy composition, microstructure, degree of deformation and grain size were found to influence the corrosion products formed and the morphology of the attack. In particular, the ‘tentacle like corrosion’, associated to a microbial attack was the most susceptible to the effect of metallurgical features: their occurrence is connected to a higher presence of Fe and Pb in the alloy, a homogeneous deformation and a larger grain size.</span> Giorgia Ghiara, Christophe Maniquet, Maria Maddalena Carnasciali, Paolo Piccardo Copyright (c) 2022 Giorgia Ghiara, Christophe Maniquet, Maria Maddalena Carnasciali, Paolo Piccardo Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Photogrammetry and GIS to investigate modern landscape change in an early Roman colonial territory in Molise (Italy) Legacy data in the form of historical aerial imagery can be used to investigate geomorphological change over time. This data can be used to improve research about the preservation and visibility of the archaeological record, and it can also aid heritage management. This paper presents a composite Image-Based Modelling workflow to generate 3D models, historical orthophotos, and historical digital elevation models from images from the 1970s. This was done to improve the interpretation of survey data from the early Roman colony of Aesernia. The main challenge was the lack of high-resolution recent digital elevation models and ground control points, and a general lack of metadata. Therefore, spatial data from various sources had to be combined. To assess the accuracy of the final 3D model, the RMSE was calculated. While the workflow appears effective, the low accuracy of the initial data limits the usefulness of the model for the study of geomorphological change. However, it can be implemented to aid sample area selection when preparing archaeological fieldwork. Additionally, when working with existing survey datasets, areas with a high bias risk resulting from post-depositional processes can be indicated. Manuel J. H. Peters, Tesse D. Stek Copyright (c) 2022 Manuel J. H. Peters, Tesse D. Stek Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Roman coins at the edge of the Negev: characterisation of copper alloy artefacts and soil from Rakafot 54 (Beer Sheva, Israel) <p>The research presented in this paper focused on the preliminary non- and semi-destructive analysis of copper alloys, corrosion, and soil components from a Roman archaeological site in Israel. Investigations using portable X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy as well as micromorphological analyses were carried out to gain a better understanding of the corrosion processes affecting the copper alloy artefacts, by characterising the alloy composition, soil environments, and corrosion products. Preliminary results indicate that the artefacts consist of copper-lead-tin alloys, covered by copper hydroxy-chlorides and lead sulphate phases with slight variations in their crystallisation. The multi-analytical approach revealed the presence of quartz, calcite, gypsum and feldspars in the sediments, while thin sections more specifically indicate loess soils with local micro-environments</p> Manuel J.H. Peters, Yuval Goren, Peter Fabian, José Mirão, Carlo Bottaini, Sabrina Grassini, Emma Angelini Copyright (c) 2022 Manuel J.H. Peters, Yuval Goren, Peter Fabian, José Mirão, Carlo Bottaini, Sabrina Grassini, Emma Angelini Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Reversible protective and consolidating coatings for the ancient iron joints at the Acropolis monuments <p>This work presents a corpus of measurement methodologies utilized during a multidisciplinary project, aiming at the protection and conservation of ancient steel joints (clamps and dowels) of the Acropolis monuments, undertaken by the Acropolis Restoration Service (YSMA). The Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of the National Technical University of Athens collaborated with YSMA in designing and evaluating laboratory scale and field experiments, aiming in testing conservation materials.</p> <p>The first phase involved the application of seven coating systems on uncorroded metal coupons. The application characteristics, physicochemical properties (colour, gloss, hydrophobicity), and the protection performance against accelerated corrosion and polymer photo-oxidation were measured. Poligen CE12 and Paraloid B67 +2% nano-alumina were selected as the two most suitable materials for pilot applications on corroded steel joints and outdoor field exposure at the monument site.</p> <p>The assessment of the two coatings reversibility and of the corroded surfaces chemical alteration was undertaken by Raman spectroscopy analyses and orthophotographic documentation. During the 1-year field exposure, the corrosion development was retarded, but some local events of active corrosion could not be prevented. The joint areas coated with Paraloid B67 enhanced with 2% nano-alumina enabled more uniform application on corroded surfaces and exhibited better corrosion protection. In case of Poligen CE12, the nature of corrosion products indicated local acceleration of corrosion reactions.</p> Giasemi Frantzi, Michail Delagrammatikas, Olga Papadopoulou, Charalampos Titakis, Eleni Aggelakopoulou, Panayota Vassiliou Copyright (c) 2022 Giasemi Frantzi, Michail Delagrammatikas, Olga Papadopoulou, Charalampos Titakis, Eleni Aggelakopoulou, Panayota Vassiliou Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the electricity savings resulting from a control system for artificial lights based on the available daylight <span lang="EN-GB">Natural lighting in building environments is an important aspect for the occupants' mental and physical health. Furthermore, the proper exploitation of this resource can bring energy benefits related to the reduced use of artificial lighting. This work provides some estimates of the energy that can be saved by using a lighting system that recognises indoor illuminance. In particular, it is able to manage the switching on of lights according to the daylight detected in the room. The savings from this solution depend on the size and orientation of the window. The analysis is conducted on an office by means of simulations using the INLUX-DBR code. The locations have an influence on the luminance characteristics of the sky. The analysis is conducted with reference to one city in the south and one in the north of Italy (Cosenza and Milan). The energy saving is almost independent of latitude and therefore representative of the Italian territory. it is highly variable according to exposure, being the highest for southern exposure (97% with the window size equal to 36% of the floor area) and between 26% and 48% (as a function of window size) for northern exposure.</span> Francesco Nicoletti, Vittorio Ferraro, Dimitrios Kaliakatsos, Mario A. Cucumo, Antonino Rollo, Natale Arcuri Copyright (c) 2022 Francesco Nicoletti, Vittorio Ferraro, Dimitrios Kaliakatsos, Mario A. Cucumo, Antonino Rollo, Natale Arcuri Mon, 19 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Position control for the MSL Kibble balance coil using a syringe pump The position of the coil in a Kibble balance must be finely controlled. In weighing mode, the coil remains stationary to maintain a constant magnetic field. In calibration mode, the coil is moved in the magnetic field to induce a voltage. The MSL Kibble balance design is based on a twin pressure balance where the coil is attached to the piston of one of the pressure balances. Here we investigate how the piston (and therefore coil) position may be controlled through careful manipulation of the gas column under the piston. We demonstrate the use of a syringe pump as a programmable volume regulator which can provide fall rate compensation as well as controlled motion of the piston. We show that the damped harmonic oscillator response of the pressure balance must be considered when moving the coil. From this initial investigation, we discuss the implications for use in the MSL Kibble balance. Rebecca J Hawke, Mark T Clarkson Copyright (c) 2022 Rebecca J Hawke, Mark T Clarkson Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 How to stretch system reliability exploiting mission constraints: A practical roadmap for industries Reliability analysis can be committed to companies by customers willing to verify whether their products comply with the major international standards or simply to verify the design prior of market deployment. Nevertheless, these analyses may be required at the very preliminary stages of design or when the design is already in progress due to low organizational capabilities or simple delay in the project implementation process. The results sometime maybe be far from the market or customer target with a subsequent need to redesign the whole asset. Of course, not all the cases fall in the worst scenario and maybe with some additional consideration on mission definition it is possible to comply with the proposed reliability targets. In this paper the author will provide an overview on the approach which could be followed to achieve the reliability target even when the project is still on-going providing a practical case study. Marco Mugnaini, Ada Fort Copyright (c) 2022 Marco Mugnaini, Ada Fort Sun, 18 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Digital twins based on augmented reality of measurement instruments for the implementation of a cyber-physical system <p>The recent increase on the Internet of Things and Industry 4.0 fields has led the research topics to investigate on the innovative technologies that could support these emerging topics in different area of applications. In particular, the current trends are to close the gap between the physical and digital worlds, thus originating the so-called Cyber-Physical System (CPS). A relevant feature of the CPS is the digital twin, i.e., a digital replica of a process/product with which user can interact to operate on the real world. In this paper, the authors propose an innovative approach exploiting an Augmented Reality solution as Digital Twin for the measurement instrument to obtain a tight connection between the measurements as physical world and the Internet of Things as digital applications. In fact, by means of the adoption of the 3D scanning strategy, Augmented Reality software and with the development of a suitable connection between the instrument and the digital world, a Cyber-Physical System has been realized as an IoT platform that collect and control the real measurement instrument and makes its available in Augmented Reality. An application example involving a digital storage oscilloscope is finally presented to highlight the efficacy of the proposed approach.</p> Annalisa Liccardo, Francesco Bonavolontà, Rosario Schiano Lo Moriello, Francesco Lamonaca, Luca De Vito, Antonio Gloria, Enzo Caputo, Giorgio de Alteriis Copyright (c) 2022 Annalisa Liccardo, Francesco Bonavolontà, Rosario Schiano Lo Moriello, Francesco Lamonaca, Luca De Vito, Antonio Gloria, Enzo Caputo, Giorgio de Alteriis Mon, 05 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Journal contacts Dirk Röske Copyright (c) 2022 Dirk Röske Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Introductory notes for the Acta IMEKO fourth issue 2022 General Track Francesco Lamonaca Copyright (c) 2022 Francesco Lamonaca Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial to selected papers from IMEKO TC1-TC7-TC13-TC18 joint symposium and MATHMET (European Metrology Network for Mathematics and Statistics) workshop 2022 Eric Benoit Copyright (c) 2022 Eric Benoit Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial to selected papers from the IMEKO TC24 Special Issue "Measurements in Cultural Heritage" Tatjana Tomić; Leonardo Iannucci; Leila Es Sebar Copyright (c) 2022 Tatjana Tomić; Leonardo Iannucci; Leila Es Sebar Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000