Measurement technologies for permanent magnets
Permanent magnets have a broad application in many important fields in modern technology. They have become indispensable in the automotive, aerospace, acoustic, telecommunications, energy generation, and many more industries. Physically, a permanent magnet is a metastable system. Fluctuations in composition and processing parameters can cause fluctuations in magnetic properties. To obtain the optimal performance in their application, users require careful control of non-machined parts and of the finished machined magnets. In most cases, the measurement of the final control of the assembled magnetic systems must be performed. The aim of this paper is to review the most common measurement methods used for the magnetic properties of permanent magnets, to comment on their advantages and limitations, and to discuss the level of accuracy that they can achieve.
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