Beamforming-based algorithms for recovering information from fetal electrocardiographic sensors
Keywords:beamforming, array of sensors, electrocardiography, adaptive filtering, MUSIC technique, apnea, applied mathematics
We deal with the extraction of the fetal electrocardiography (ECG) signal from the raw ECG signals of the mother by the beamforming- based algorithms. The foetal ECG sensors bring out signals containing information from the pregnant mother and the infant. Detailed and separate signals are already provided by the foetal ECG instruments; but for some specific studies related to the infant conditions, it is necessary to improve the quality of the signal with a dedicated processing. In this paper, four techniques, with some enhancements, are proposed to perform the processing; we have applied the following techniques: Least Mean Square (LMS) with adaptive noise cancellation technique, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)-based technique, Empirical Wavelet Transform (EWT) technique, and Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC). The LMS and the MUSIC pertain to beamforming approach. The techniques were used to decompose and identify the different elements constituting the source signal (mother's signal) and noise cancellation by Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition (MEMD) technique. The signal was adaptively decomposed by LMS, DWT and MUSIC according to optimised parameters to extract some hidden components of the source signal, such as the foetal features, QRS, heartbeat etc. The results have showed that LMS, with enhancements, is more effective in identifying and removing useless noise. The techniques were applied to the ECG signal of a 30-year-old healthy pregnant woman, which allowed to verify their applicability.
The present research leads to the below main contributions among others: separation of the ECG signal of the foetus from the mother, highlighting the functional state of the foetal heart rhythm (heart rate and heartbeat,) and this can show us if the foetal ECG has malfunctions.
Copyright (c) 2023 John P. Djungha Okitadiowo, Aimé Lay-Ekuakille, Tommaso Isernia, Vikrant Bhateja, Satya Prakash Singh
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