A learning model for battery lifetime prediction of LoRa sensors in additive manufacturing


  • Alberto Morato National Research Council of Italy, CNR-IEIIT, Italy
  • Tommaso Fedullo University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy
  • Stefano Vitturi National Research Council of Italy, CNR-IEIIT, Italy
  • Luigi Rovati University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy
  • Federico Tramarin University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy




LoRa, LoRaWan, IIoT, battery lifetime, machine learning


Today, an innovative leap for wireless sensor networks, leading to the realization of novel and intelligent industrial measurement systems, is represented by the requirements arising from the Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) paradigms. In fact, unprecedented challenges to measurement capabilities are being faced, with the ever-increasing need to collect reliable yet accurate data from mobile, battery-powered nodes over potentially large areas. Therefore, optimizing energy consumption and predicting battery life are key issues that need to be accurately addressed in such IoT-based measurement systems. This is the case for the additive manufacturing application considered in this work, where smart battery-powered sensors embedded in manufactured artifacts need to reliably transmit their measured data to better control production and final use, despite being physically inaccessible. A Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN), and in particular LoRaWAN (Long Range WAN), represents a promising solution to ensure sensor connectivity in the aforementioned scenario, being optimized to minimize energy consumption while guaranteeing long-range operation and low- cost deployment. In the presented application, LoRa equipped sensors are embedded in artifacts to monitor a set of meaningful parameters throughout their lifetime. In this context, once the sensors are embedded, they are inaccessible, and their only power source is the originally installed battery. Therefore, in this paper, the battery lifetime prediction and estimation problems are thoroughly investigated. For this purpose, an innovative model based on an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is proposed, developed starting from the discharge curve of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries used in the additive manufacturing application. The results of experimental campaigns carried out on real sensors were compared with those of the model and used to tune it appropriately. The results obtained are encouraging and pave the way for interesting future developments.






Research Papers