Establishment of air piston gauge as primary pressure standard at CSIR-National Physical Laboratory INDIA

Vikas N. Thakur, Sanjay Yadav, Ashok Kumar


The air piston gauge (APG) was established at CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, India (NPLI) since 2000. Later the same piston- cylinder(p-c) assembly was calibrated in NIST USA; however, it was never published for metrology communities. As per international protocol, the establishment of the APG as a primary standard, the effective area of p-c assembly, and masses must be directly traceable to SI units. The first time we have calculated the effective area and associated uncertainty of p-c assembly using dimension and mass metrology, traceability to the SI units, i.e., meter and kilogram. To realize the APG as primary pressure standards, we have calculated the effective area of p-c assembly of APG directly from dimension metrology, which is further supported by various other methods. The effective area values obtained in the pressure range of 6.5 – 360 kPa lie in the range of 3.356729 – 3.357248 cm² due to uncertainty limitation in the measurement of dimension of internal diameter of cylinder. The expected values of the effective area which are also measured from cross-float technique against ultrasonic interferometer manometer (UIM), primary pressure standards. The accuracy in effective area measurement is possible only when the resolution in the internal radius of the cylinder should at least be up to 5th decimal order and the uncertainty is 80 nm. The expanded uncertainty was measured nearly 11 ppm at k = 2 by considering the uncertainty in internal radii of cylinder and radii of piston around 80 nm.

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